Hacktivism is a cyber-attack movement in which computer network hacking is motivated by social activism or political protest. Hacktivism often includes DoS and DDoS attacks against the websites of governments, law enforcement agencies, political parties, religious groups, or any website that expresses ideas, beliefs or policies that a hacktivist group opposes. In addition to denial of service attacks, hacktivism also manifests itself as website defacement and data breaches. In 1999, the Cult of the Dead Cow created the concept of hacktivism with Hactivism, an organization that touted freedom of information as a basic human right. Learn about hacktivism in the white paper DDoS Attacks Against Global Markets.